is divided into three counties:
2,124 sq km (820 sq miles), the eastern county
5,248 sq km (2,026 sq miles), the middle county
4,053 sq km (1,565 sq miles), the western
counties are divided into fourteen parishes.
has four parishes:
(including Port Royal)
has five parishes:
has five parishes:
to the Revised Preliminary Figures from the Statistical
Institute of Jamaica, the population of Jamaica
numbered 2,391,273 on April 7, 1991.
The parish and city of Kingston together
cover area of over 25 sq km (10 sq miles) and
a population of 100,637. It is the capital of
Jamaica. Laid out as a city in 1693 the year after
the destruction of Port Royal by earthquake, it
became the capital in 1872.
is the capital of Jamaica because it is the centre
of communications in the island with the outside
world. The main roads from the north, the east
and the west converge naturally on the Liguanea
Plain on which the city is built. The railway
has its main terminus in the city. Kingston's
large sheltered harbour has made it possible for
the city to be a major shipping for over three
centuries. Esso Standard Oil Company built an
oil refinery at the western end of the harbour.
It was later purchased by the Government of Jamaica
in 1982. The Norman Manley International Airport
(formerly the Palisadoes International Airport),
one of the two international airports in the island,
is equipped to receive the most modern types of
is a modern city built on a plain gently sloping
upwards from the shores of the harbour northwards
to the hills of St. Andrew. It is the seat of
government and the centre of industry, commerce
and culture for the whole island. The City of
Kingston embraces the urban centres of St. Andrew,
and is administered locally by the Kingston and
St. Andrew Corporation (KSAC).
city has numerous suburbs, and is steadily expanding
northwards as a residential area, westwards and
beyond, and eastwards as both residential and
industrial districts, with special emphasis as
both residential and industrial districts. There
has been special emphasis on large residential
developments across the harbour from Kingston.
Kingston steadily expanded, New Kingston, an extensive
commercial centre, was built on what had been
the Knutsford Park Race Course, midway between
Cross Roads and Half-Way-Tree. Many commercial
high-rise buildings have been erected for commercial
firms, banks and insurance companies. A shopping
centre, a supermarket and a drive-in cinema were
added. There are two modern high-rise hotels in
the area, the Wyndham, Kingston, and the Pegasus,
the latter leased to the Trust House Forte Ltd
of Great Britain for management purposes. New
Kingston continues to expand to meet the growing
needs of business and commerce,
parochial buildings used to be looked after by
two public bodies, the Kingston General Commissioners
and the Mayor and Councillors, but these have
given place to a single authority, the Kingston
and St. Andrew Corporation. The Chairman of the
Council is also the Mayor of Kingston. The Kingston
and St. Andrew Corporation came into being on
May 1, 1933, when the parishes of Kingston and
St. Andrew were amalgamated in order to secure
better management of the affairs of both. Since
then Kingston and St. Andrew have been called
the Corporate Area. The combined population of
Kingston and St. Andrew is 644,119, of which 562,073
live in the metropolitan area, that is Kingston
and urban St. Andrew.
Royal, formerly a separate parish but now part
of Kingston, stands at the western end of the
Palisadoes. The town has considerable historical
and cultural significance.
The parish of St. Andrew has an area
of 455 sq km (181 sq miles) and a population of
540,715. It lies north of Kingston and stretches
into the Blue Mountain.
Andrew has no large towns. Cross Roads, Half-Way-Tree
and Constant Spring are important commercial centres
but may be regarded as suburbs of Kingston. West
St. Andrew is a populous residential area. The
remainder of the parish is given over to agriculture,
its principal products being coffee, vegetables
and ground provisions. South of Papine and seven
miles north-east of Kingston is the University
of the West Indies, occupying 260 hectares (640
acres) of the Liguanea Plain at the foot of Long
Mountain. Nearby is the College of Arts, Science
and Technology which has now become the University
St. Andrew, bordering on Western Kingston, there
is an industrial estate established by government
to encourage the movement of industrial plants
from the business areas of Kingston and to facilitate
the establishment of new industries with local
and overseas capital. The Industrial Estate is
over 120 hectares (300 acres) in size. Gypsum
occurs in large quantities in eastern St. Andrew.
The largest deposits are in the area of Bull Bay,
within a mile and a half of the coast .
Right Excellent George William Gordon (d.1865),
one of Jamaica's seven National Heroes, was born
in this Parish.
The parish of St. Thomas is situated
at the eastern end of the island, south of Portland,
with the Blue Mountains forming its northern border.
It has an area of 750 sq km (300 sq miles) and
85,079 inhabitants. Morant Bay which lies on the
coast road from Kingston, is its capital, chief
town and shipping port. It has a population of
9,762. The bay is an open roadstead where large
vessels can anchor safely. Eleven kilometres (7
miles) east of Morant Bay is the town of Port
Morant, which has a safe harbour with a deep-water
pier on its eastern side at Bowden.
town of Bath is famous for its sulphurous hot
mineral spring. Other principal towns and villages
are Seaforth, Yallahs, Golden Grove, Cedar Valley,
Easington and Trinityville. An area of 175 sq
km (70 sq miles) from Silver Hill Gap in north
St. Andrew to the coast of St. Thomas is administered
by the Yallahs Valley Land Authority. There are
two sugar factories in the St. Thomas. The parish
produces chiefly bananas. coffee, coconuts and
Right Excellent Paul Bogle (d. 1865), one of Jamaica's
seven National Heroes, is believed to have been
horn in this parish.
The parish of Portland, which lies
north of St. Thomas, extends from the highest
peaks of the Blue Mountains down to the north
coast. It is noted for its fertile soil, beautiful
scenery and abundant rainfall. Port Antonio is
its chief town and capital with a population of
13,205. It has two fine harbours, the western
one being sheltered h a small islet called Navy
Island. The town is divided into Upper and Lower
Titchfield. Upper Titchfield occupies the peninsula
and is the residential area; Lower Titchfield
extends along the shore where the commercial section
and municipal buildings are situated. Port Antonio
is regarded as the cradle of the tourist industry
Margaret's Bay and Buff Bay, which lie on the
railway line between Kingston and Port Antonio
are thriving townships. Manchioneal lies on the
northeastern coast and is important mainly for
bananas and coconuts.
chief product of Portland is the banana. It was
in this parish in 1868 that the banana trade with
the United States was first started. Coconuts
are grown extensively. Nanny of the Maroons, one
of Jamaica's seven National Heroes, is believed
to have been born in this Parish. Portland has
an area of 820 sq km (328 sq miles) and a population
The parish of St. Catherine, which lies west of
St. Andrew and south of St. Mary and St. Ann,
is the largest parish in the island with an area
of 1,260 sq km (483 sq miles), and a population
of 383,317. Its capital is Spanish Town, originally
built by the Spaniards who named it St. Jago de
La Vega. The name was changed by the British troops
when they invaded the island and claimed it for
England. The town was the capital of Jamaica until
1872 when Kingston became the capital. Spanish
Town is built on the Rio Cobre Plain and is situated
where the old route from St. Ann's Bay joins the
southern plains. The present population is 112,767.
Town, which has a Mayor, is of great historical
significance. It contains what remains of the
ancient government buildings, the former Court
House, House of Assembly and the facade of the
original King's House (the Governor's residence)
in the square dedicated to Admiral Rodney. There
is also an impressive statue of Rodney who saved
Jamaica from invasion by the French. The archives
of Jamaica and the Registrar General's Office
are in Spanish Town.
four-lane highway connects Spanish Town with Kingston.
Portmore, connected to Kingston by a causeway
across Kingston Harbour, has a population of 100,214
compared to 73,426 in 1982. The northern road
from Spanish Town passes through the picturesque
gorge of Bog Walk, by-passes the township of Linstead
and then continues to the bauxite town of Ewarton
at the foot of Mount Diablo. On the southern road
from Spanish Town is the town of Old Harbour which
has 17,883 people. On the coast five kilometres
(3 miles) from Old Harbour is Old Harbour Bay,
the largest fishing village in Jamaica. It has
a fine harbour with one of the best deep-water
piers in the island. The main generating power
plant of the Jamaica Public Service is in Old
Esquivel, at which alumina is shipped from the
island, Lluidas Vale, Troja and Glengoffe in the
hills and Port Henderson and Passage Fort on the
coast, are important areas. Many new industrial
plants have been established in this Parish. The
plains of St. Catherine, which provide numerous
grazing pens, are largely given over to sugar
and rice cultivation. The Rio Cobre Canal irrigates
about 7,200 hectares (18,000 acres) of the St.
Catherine Plains. The chief products of the parish
are: sugar, rum, coffee, bananas, rice, citrus,
tobacco and cocoa. Recently, fish farming has
been introduced on an extensive scale. There are
five sugar factories, an alumina plant at Ewarton,
a citrus processing factory, a condensery and
a pineapple-canning factory at Bog Walk (an important
citrus area), a textile mill, a bagasse plant
and a steel mill just outside Spanish Town. Bodles
Agricultural Station is situated between Old Harbour
and May Pen. The Soya Bean Processing Plant is
situated between Old Harbour and May Pen.
The parish of St. Mary has an area
of 634 sq km (254 sq miles) and some 109,386 inhabitants.
capital of St. Mary is Port Maria, a town of 7,113
people. The Chairman of the Parish Council is
the Mayor. Port Maria has a good harbour partially
sheltered from the 'northers' by Cabaritta Isle
which acts as a breakwater. Annotto Bay is on
both the main road and the railway line between
Kingston and Port Antonio. The town is intersected
by three slow rivers which create swamps in the
surrounding area. There is a sugar factory at
Gray's Inn to the west of Annotto Bay.
which has a small but secure harbour, was once
important as a banana port. The township of Highgate
is situated almost 13 kilometres (8 miles) from
Port Maria on the road to Richmond. West of Port
Maria, the area between Boscobel and Tower Isle
has been developed into an important tourist resort.
parish has a good variety of agricultural resources.
The principal products are bananas, sugar, citrus,
pimento, cocoa, coconuts and coffee. Copra is
produced in fairly large quantities. The botanical
gardens at Castleton are near the southern boundary
of the parish. The principal rivers from east
to west are the Dry River, the Wag Water, the
Rio Nuevo and the White River.
The parish of Clarendon has an area
of 1,167 sq km (467 sq miles). With a population
which numbers 215,515, it is one of the most populous
parishes in the island. The capital, May Pen,
with a Mayor and a population of 49,928, is situated
on the banks of the Rio Minho about 44 km (35
miles) from Kingston. Four Paths is on the main
road 6.5 km (4 miles) west of May Pen. Frankfield
is the centre of a large and flourishing agricultural
district. It has a railway station, which is the
terminus of a 38.5 km (24 mile) long branch from
May Pen to Frankfield and is the most important
centre for buying bananas in the parish. Chapelton
is the principal town of northern Clarendon.
is a thriving township with a healthy climate
near the borders between Clarendon and Manchester.
Alley is a small town on the banks of the Rio
Minho; its economy depends almost entirely on
the nearby sugar estates. The village of Lilac
River stands on the banks of the river whose name
it bears; the Milk River Bath with its health-giving
mineral springs is on the west bank of the river,
five km (3 miles) from the village.
mining has been established in the parish by JAMALCO
and ALCOA. JAMALCO is an enterprise owned by the
Jamaican Government and the Aluminium Company
of America (ALCOA).
Bull Head Mountains, rising to a height of about
851 metres (2,800 ft) near the northern boundary
of the parish, mark the centre of the island.
Some of the island's tobacco is grown in Clarendon.
The best sugar-cane cultivation may be seen in
this parish, which produces the largest amount
of sugar. May Pen is an important citrus packing
centre. Copper-mining at Provost Keys and Retreat
has been carried on intermittently. The Denbigh
agricultural showground is a short distance from
May Pen. The Bustamante Highway, connects May
Pen to Mandeville.
The parish of St. Ann, called 'the
Garden Parish of Jamaica' on account of its extreme
beauty, has an area of 1,200 km (481 sq miles)
and a population of 152,967. Bauxite and tourism
play a major part in the economic life of the
parish. The capital town is St. Ann's Bay which
has a Mayor and a population of 11,066. Less than
a mile west of the town is the site of the first
capital of the island, Sevilla la Nueva founded
by Juan de Esquivel, the first Spanish Governor
of Jamaica, in 1509. A shrine in honour of Christopher
Columbus has been erected near there. The world-famous
Dunn's River Falls are located in this Parish.
Rios, about seven miles east of St. Ann's Bay
is an important tourist resort. Its harbour affords
good shelter for ships, and has fine deep-water
piers for cruise ships and bauxite export. Its
population in 1991 was 8,509. Discovery Bay, formerly
called Dry Harbour, is the place where Columbus
is reputed to have landed when he first anchored
in Jamaica. It possesses a magnificent natural
harbour. It is here that Port Rhoades has been
built by Kaiser Company for the shipment of bauxite.
road to Moneague in the interior passes through
the celebrated Fern Gully. Brown's Town is the
largest town in the interior of St. Ann with a
population of 6,739. The township of Clarendon
once derived its importance chiefly from the nearby
bauxite mines. The agricultural products of the
parish are chiefly bananas, pimento, sugar, coconuts
and coffee. The soil is suitable for citrus and
in the drier parts, sisal is cultivated. Pimento
grows abundantly in the parish which is also noted
for cattle rearing. The Right Excellent Marcus
Mosiah Garvey (d. 1940), one of Jamaica's seven
National Heroes, was born in St. Ann's Bay.
The parish of Manchester which lies
between Clarendon and St. Elizabeth, has an area
of 850 sq km (339 sq miles) and a population of
162,135. The parish offers a considerable variety
of climate, vegetation and scenery. Mandeville,
the capital and chief town of the parish, now
has a Mayor. It is situated at an elevation of
626 metres (2,061 ft) and is readily reached from
all parts of the island. The town is noted for
its natural beauty and salubrious climate and
is considered a fine health resort. It has a population
28 km (14 miles) north of Mandeville, is the second
largest town of the parish. It is the centre of
a large banana and ginger-growing district. The
Christiana Land Authority assists agricultural
development in the region. Irish potato is grown
considerably in the Christiana area. Porus, on
the plain near the eastern border of the parish,
is a populous town on the railway line and the
main road to the west.
the parish is extremely mountainous, there is
no large-scale cultivation of crops such as sugar
cane which require large tracts of flat land.
Bananas, coffee and pimento are grown; the parish
is noted for its oranges and ortaniques. There
are no rivers in this parish and the southern
districts often suffer drought.
Right Excellent Norman Washington Manley (d. 1969),
one of Jamaica's seven National Heroes, was born
in this parish.
The parish of St. Elizabeth, situated between
Manchester and Westmoreland has an area of 1,185
sq km (474 sq miles) and a population of 144,384.
Its capital and chief shipping port is Black River,
a town of 3,427 people situated at the mouth of
the river whose name it bears. The principal towns
are Lacovia, Santa Cruz, Newmarket, Siloah, Malvern
and Maggotty. On the northern boundary of the
parish is Accompong, a Maroon settlement.
northern and north-eastern section of the parish
are mountainous. The central and southern sections
form an extensive plain divided by the salubrious
Santa Cruz Mountains. Although a large part of
the lowlands is covered by morass, it provides
some of the finest grazing land in the island.
The Savannah of St. Elizabeth produce fine horses
occurs in large deposits. Port Kaiser, near Alligator
Pond, has a leading deep-water pier for bauxite
export. A huge $124 million alumina plant has
been constructed at Nain. There are two sugar
factories in the parish and a tomato canning plant
at Bull Savannah. Fishing is a major industry
in the parish and rice cultivation has developed.
parish of Trelawny has an area of 880 sq km (352
sq miles) and extends from the Cockpit Country
to the north coast between St. Ann and St. James,
with a population of 72,124. The capital is Falmouth,
a well laid-out town with a population of 8,066
It has a large harbour, the entrance of which
has been enlarged. The town has a constant supply
of water from the Martha Brae river.
Town, ten miles from Falmouth, and Stewart Town,
near the eastern border of the parish, are important
centres of trade in produce from the interior.
Rio Bueno has one of the deepest harbours in the
island. Duncans, near the coast, and Albert Town
and Ulster Spring in the interior, are places
which have grown in importance. Troy, Wait-a-Bit
and Warsop are thriving villages in the Cockpit
only river of importance in the parish is the
Martha Brae. The Dornoch water supply, one of
the most successful water schemes established
in the island, furnishes a large area of the lowlands
with a good and wholesome supply of water.
and sugar are Trelawny's principal products. There
are two sugar factories in the parish. Other products
are pimento, ginger and dye woods. Some bananas
are also grown.
The parish of St. James has an area
of 600 sq km (240 sq miles) and 127,894 inhabitants.
Its capital, Montego Bay, has been named a city.
It has a population of 85,503 and its residential
areas are rapidly expanding.
bay is an open roadstead, opening to the west
and protected by low hills from the trade winds.
It is partially exposed to the 'northers' between
November and March. An elaborate deep-water pier
has been constructed on reclaimed land which took
in the area of the Bogue Islands. The city may
be roughly divided into two sections: the tourist
area, occupying the northern section of the bay
along the shore line, and the commercial and industrial
sections which are second only to Kingston in
size and volume of trade. The sea-bathing beach
at Doctor's Cave is internationally famous.
Bay is the most important centre of Jamaica's
tourist industry, and many modern hotels have
been erected on the coast. North of the town is
the Sangster International Airport.
is next in importance to Montego Bay. Ducketts,
Seven Rivers and Chesterfield, which are in an
area of considerable rainfall, have large estates
in banana cultivation. Adelphi, Montpelier and
Catadupa are important townships. The products
of the parish are chiefly sugar, bananas and coffee
Right Excellent Samuel Shape (d. 1833), one of
Jamaica's Seven National Heroes. was born in this
The parish of Hanover at the western
end of the island, north of Westmoreland, is the
smallest parish in the island with the exception
of Kingston. Hanover is 442 sq km (177 sq miles)
in area. It has 67,176 inhabitants. It is mountainous
and well-watered parish, although its rivers are
small. The highest point in the parish is the
Dolphin's Head, which serves as a landmark for
ships at sea. The beautiful beaches of Hanover
offer considerable scope for the expansion of
the tourist industry.
capital town, Lucea. with a Mayor and population
of 5,739 has a good harbour, narrow at the entrance
but opening into a wide basin capable of receiving
large vessels. It is almost completely landlocked.
Green Island is a small shipping port. The village
of Hopewell, about 24 km (15 miles) east of Lucea,
is a major tourist resort.
is celebrated for its fine breeds of cattle. It
produces chiefly bananas, ginger, sugar and rum,
pimento, yams and arrowroot.
Right Excellent Sir William Alexander Bustamante,
(d. 1977), one of Jamaica's seven National Heroes,
was born in this parish. His birthplace at Blenheim
has been converted into a National Shrine.
The parish of Westmoreland, the most
westerly in Jamaica, has an area of 800 sq km
(320 sq miles) and a population of 129,596.
capital and principal town is Savanna-la-Mar.
with a population of 16,370. It is a shipping
port and an important commercial centre. Little
London, Petersfield, Bethel Town, Williamsfield
and Darliston are the leading townships. Fishing
is carried on at Bluefields. Little Bay, Negril,
Cave and White House.
its fertile soil and regular rainfall, Westmoreland
is well suited for agriculture. It is watered
by numerous rivers, chief of which are the Cabaritta,
Roaring, Great, Negril and New Savannah. About
4,400 hectares (11,000 acres) of the parish were
once covered with morass lands which provided
pasture for cattle in the dry season. In the recent
past, the Government spent millions of dollars
draining the vast areas in the vicinity of Negril.
Roads. water and other facilities have been put
in to provide for extensive tourist and other
development. Nearly a quarter of the parish consists
of alluvial plains suited for sugar cane while
the remainder consists of hills of moderate elevation.
is the chief industry of the parish, with the
main centre at Frome where there is a large central
sugar factory. Next to sugar and its by-product
rum, is the cattle industry. Rice-growing is also
important, especially on the marsh land at the
Paul Island district. Other products of the parish
are bananas, ginger, pimento, logwood and honey.
Figures are taken from the April 7, 1991 Census
as set out in the Revised Preliminary Figures
put out by the Office of the Statistical Institute)